Naquib Amil and son (Library of Congress)

    Amil, who may or may not have held the formal title of "Datu" or "Panglima" (War Leader) nevertheless was one of the most effective resistance leaders encountered during the twenty year period of the direct American presence and control in Moroland. In early January, 1913 Amil sent government agents who had come to the village of Taglibi to collect weapons back to Jolo with a simple message. "Tell the soldiers to come on and fight."  

    January 23, 1913 (either the caption above is erroneous or the photograph was taken a month later) a force of a little over 150 Scouts and constabulary clashed with 65-70 Tausugs under Amil and his deputy, Datu Sahipa, who were defending a large cache of firearms and ammunition. The Tausugs repelled the initial assault, inflicting 20% casualties on the attacking force and killing the American commander, Captain Patrick McNally. Although carrying the cotta in the second assault and killing two-thirds of the defenders, Amil, Sahipa and two dozen men were able to escape by a hidden underground tunnel, taking the weapons cache with them. (This and following photos - Library of Congress)

    A few days later eight juramentados attacked elements of the 8th Cavalry and a Constabulary company at night at their encampment at Camp Stevers near Siet Lake. Despite a heavy-fire and a barbed wire perimeter, seven of the eight kris-wielding attackers penetrated inside the camp and wrecked havoc before being killed. 

Tents of the 8th Cavalry surrounded by sharpened bamboo stakes

A cavalry horse cut up by one of the attackers

The barbed wire protective fence, with rocks inside tin cans for warning

Following the attack, the recently-formed 52nd Moro Scouts were rushed to the island